An infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus.

Symptoms of HIV

The following features are indicative of HIV:
  • fever
  • headache
  • rash
  • muscle or joint pain
  • sore throat
  • swollen lymph glands
  • fever
  • fatigue
  • diarrhea
  • weight loss
  • night sweat
  • yeast infection
It is possible that HIV shows no physical symptoms and still is present in a patient.

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Common Causes of HIV

The following are the most common causes of HIV:
  • human immunodeficiency virus
  • fall in CD4 count
  • sexual contact
  • blood transfusion
  • sharing needles
  • pregnancy
  • breastfeeding

Risk Factors for HIV

The following factors may increase the likelihood of HIV:
  • unprotected sex
  • other sexually transmitted infections
  • by sharing needles

Prevention of HIV

Yes, it may be possible to prevent HIV. Prevention may be possible by doing the following:
  • use condoms
  • HIV test before sex
  • be monogamous
  • limit sexual partners
  • do not douche
  • do not abuse drugs or alcohol
  • preventing mother to child transmission
  • avoid breast feeding

Occurrence of HIV

Number of Cases

The following are the number of HIV cases seen each year worldwide:
  • Very common > 10 Million cases

Common Age Group

HIV can occur at any age.

Common Gender

HIV can occur in any gender.

Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of HIV

The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect HIV:
  • Screening test: To check the presence of HIV antibody and antigen in blood sample
  • CD4 count: To check CD4 (white blood cells) count
  • Viral load: To measure the amount of virus in blood
  • Drug resistance: To check the resistance of the HIV strain to anti-HIV medications
  • Other lab tests: To test other infections like tuberculosis, hepatitis, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted infections

Doctor for Diagnosis of HIV

Patients should visit the following specialists if they have symptoms of HIV:
  • HIV specialist

Complications of HIV if untreated

Yes, HIV causes complications if it is not treated. Below is the list of complications and problems that may arise if HIV is left untreated:
  • tuberculosis
  • cytomegalovirus
  • candidiasis
  • cryptococcal meningitis
  • toxoplasmosis
  • cryptosporidiosis
  • kaposi's sarcoma
  • lymphomas
  • wasting syndrome
  • neurological complications
  • kidney disease

Procedures for Treatment of HIV

The following procedures are used to treat HIV:
  • Antiretroviral therapy: Raises the CD4 cell count

Self-care for HIV

The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of HIV:
  • Eat healthy food
  • Maintaining hygiene
  • Get regular immunizations

Patient Support for Treatment of HIV

The following actions may help HIV patients:
  • Communicate with your partner: Keeps you healthy
  • Join support group: Helps in managing HIV

Time for Treatment of HIV

While time-period of treatment for each patient may vary, below is the typical time-period for HIV to resolve if treated properly under an expert supervision:
  • Disease cannot be treated but only maintained or effects reduced

Is HIV Infectious?

Yes, HIV is known to be infectious. It can spread across people via the following means:
  • blood transfusion
  • sharing needles
  • pregnant mother to fetus
  • breast feeding
  • unprotected sexual contact

Related Topics

Last updated date

This page was last updated on 2/04/2019.
This page provides information for HIV.

Related Topics


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