Also called: Menses, Menstrual period, Period

Menstruation, or period, is normal vaginal bleeding that occurs as part of a woman's monthly cycle. Every month, your body prepares for pregnancy. If no pregnancy occurs, the uterus, or womb, sheds its lining. The menstrual blood is partly blood and partly tissue from inside the uterus. It passes out of the body through the vagina.

Periods usually start between age 11 and 14 and continue until menopause at about age 51. They usually last from three to five days. Besides bleeding from the vagina, you may have

Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, is a group of symptoms that start before the period. It can include emotional and physical symptoms.

Consult your health care provider if you have big changes in your cycle. They may be signs of other problems that should be treated.

NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

Symptoms of Menstruation

The following features are indicative of Menstruation:
  • abdominal or pelvic cramping pain
  • lower back pain
  • bloating and sore breasts
  • food cravings
  • mood swings
  • irritability
  • headache
  • fatigue
  • premenstrual syndrome
It is possible that Menstruation shows no physical symptoms and still is present in a patient.

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Common Causes of Menstruation

The following are the most common causes of Menstruation:
  • rise and fall of hormones
  • thickening of the lining of the uterus
  • breakage of endometrial lining

Prevention of Menstruation

No, it is not possible to prevent Menstruation.
  • natural factors

Occurrence of Menstruation

Number of Cases

The following are the number of Menstruation cases seen each year worldwide:
  • Very common > 10 Million cases

Common Age Group

Menstruation most commonly occurs in the following age group:
  • Aged between 12-52 years

Common Gender

Menstruation most commonly occurs in the following gender:
  • Female

Lab Tests and Procedures for Diagnosis of Menstruation

The following lab tests and procedures are used to detect Menstruation:
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) test: To diagnose various menstruation related disorders
  • Estrogen level tests: To diagnose various menstruation related disorders
  • Endometrial biopsy: To diagnose menstrual irregularities
  • Hysteroscopy: To examine the inside of the uterus
  • Saline infusion sonohysterography: To diagnose menstrual irregularities
  • Transvaginal ultrasonography: Ultrasound imaging to diagnose menstrual irregularities

Doctor for Diagnosis of Menstruation

Patients should visit the following specialists if they have symptoms of Menstruation:
  • Gynecologist

Complications of Menstruation if untreated

It is not know if Menstruation causes complications if left untreated.

Self-care for Menstruation

The following self-care actions or lifestyle changes may help in the treatment or management of Menstruation:
  • Use heating pad: Apply heating pad to lower belly area to relieve menstrual pain
  • Take healthy diet: Eat light but frequent meals
  • Regular exercise: Walk or exercise regularly
  • Keep weight under control: Lose weight if you are overweight

Alternative Medicine for Treatment of Menstruation

The following alternate medicine and therapies are known to help in the treatment or management of Menstruation:
  • Do meditation: Helps relaxing and relieves stress
  • Do yoga: Helps relieving pain
  • Acupuncture: Helps relieving menstrual cramps
  • Acupressure: Helps relieving menstrual cramps

Patient Support for Treatment of Menstruation

The following actions may help Menstruation patients:
  • Talk early and often: Talk to your daughter about the changes she can expect in her body

Last updated date

This page was last updated on 3/29/2022.
This page provides information for Menstruation.
Period Pain
Premature Ovarian Failure
Premenstrual Syndrome
Vaginal Bleeding

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